Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Question: Examine about theEffective Business Communication for Public. Answer: Presentation This report manages the organization that has been given for the situation study, which works on a worldwide level and takes into account a million clients on a worldwide way. The organization faces issue in its correspondence design, which is causing an issue in taking care of the representatives in a proficient way. The report contains instances of fruitful associations that have successful strategies for correspondence, which has helped the organizations in keeping the workers propelled and connected inside the line of creation. The techniques have additionally been given, which will help the organization that is given for the situation study to keep up a sound example of correspondence with the workers. The correspondence should be powerful in nature in any association, as it helps in building the assurance of the representatives and draws in them in a superior route inside the association. Flopping in doing so may expand the odds of hampering the relationship with the representatives, as it might prompt mistaken assumptions and breaking of trust inside the association. Inadequate correspondence may prompt the disappointment of the techniques that the organization needs to receive inside its hierarchical culture (Jin, Liu Austin, 2014). Effective Organizations Worldwide associations like Zappos who are prestigious for their business of selling shoes on the web include a superior culture inside the organization, as the representatives who are recently recruited inside the association needs to experience a preparation period following which the workers are extended $2000 on the off chance that they quit the employment opportunity during the preparation time frame. This helps the organization in drawing in the workers inside the framework in a superior way. The spending plan of the organization is made such that will help in working up the group and advance culture inside the association. the correspondence inside the association is level in nature, which helps the workers in communicating with the chiefs in a superior way (Cardon Marshall, 2015). The authoritative culture inside Zappos causes the representatives to be cheerful and stay submitted towards the work with the goal that it encourages them in expanding their degree of profitability. Another renowned association, Google additionally has a compelling example of correspondence inside the association. The representatives are furnished with free excursions and budgetary rewards that help them in being locked in inside the association. The central station of the association is planned in such a manner in this way, that it can house the offices in various parts. This helps the representatives of the divisions to interface in a superior way with their partners, which helps in delivering better nature of items and administrations (Eisenberg, Goodall Jr Trethewey, 2013). Facebook also have a legitimate example of correspondence inside their association that helps the workers in discussing straightforwardly with the administrators and the senior administration, which helps in the development and gives learning advantages to the representatives. The organization has distinctive meeting rooms in different structures, which helps the workers in conveying in a free way. The organization advances an authoritative culture that is compliment in nature so it helps in advancing uniformity among the workers (Austin Pinkleton, 2015). Methodologies that should be Adopted by the Company The methodologies that the organization needs to embrace in the given contextual investigation that will help in imparting in a superior route inside the association are that they have to keep up an open specialized strategy with the goal that the representatives can give better inputs and thoughts to the chiefs. This will help the organization in making progress at all their undertakings (Tourish, 2014). The comprehensive system of correspondence methodology causes the workers to feel that they are a piece of the choice body, which will help in influencing the day by day exercises of the representatives. The association doesn't have to keep up a clandestine kind of correspondence design that may include the top administration, which brings about the loss of chances that may develop inside the association. The inclusion of the representatives will play a critical factor that will influence the achievement and the fulfillment of the workers (Christensen Cornelissen, 2013). The association needs to build up the social correspondence so it can help in help in accomplishing the outcomes inside the association. Since, the association manages worldwide and neighborhood customers, the organization manages parcel of workers. The correspondence design inside the association should be various so the workers can speak with one another in a superior way. This will help the organization in accomplishing the outcomes, as the workers will have the option to serve better inside the association (Cornelissen, 2017). The association needs to embrace different channels with the goal that the messages of the association can be moved in a proficient way, which will help in moving the messages successfully. The viable channels of correspondence that the organization may use to transmit the messages are the discussions that can be held with the workers on an eye to eye way alongside the collaboration that should be led by means of calls and faxes (Ulmer, Sellnow Seeger, 2013). The association needs to convey the messages to all the divisions with the goal that it can help the representatives in getting significant data about the conveyance or accepting the items from different offices. The representatives will have the option to get earlier data about the conveyance bundle, which will help in expanding the productivity of the workers with the goal that the merchandise or the items can be conveyed by the organization in a proper way (Mishra, Boynton Mishra, 2014). These strategies for correspondence can help the organization in building better relationship with the representatives so they can work in a productive way and remain submitted towards the association. The organization needs to receive the web-based social networking in their specialized technique with the goal that it can help in conveying the messages in a superior way to the representatives and the clients may likewise pick up information about the items and administrations that are being offered by the organization (Pedersen, 2017). List of sources Austin, E. W., Pinkleton, B. E. (2015).Strategic advertising the board: Planning and overseeing powerful correspondence campaigns(Vol. 10). Routledge. Awadh, A. M., Alyahya, M. S. (2013). Effect of hierarchical culture on representative performance.International Review of Management and Business Research,2(1), 168. Baldini, G., Karanasios, S., Allen, D., Vergari, F. (2014). Study of remote correspondence advances for open safety.IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials,16(2), 619-641. Bove, C. L., Thill, J. V. (2013).Business correspondence basics. Pearson Higher Ed. Cardon, P. W., Marshall, B. (2015). The promotion and truth of web based life use for work coordinated effort and group communication.International Journal of Business Communication,52(3), 273-293. Cheung, S. O., Yiu, T. W. (2014). Intertwining Trust and Communication for Project Performance. InConstruction Dispute Research(pp. 169-187). Springer International Publishing. Christensen, L. T., Cornelissen, J. (2013). Crossing over corporate and authoritative correspondence: Review, improvement and a look to what's to come. InOrganisationskommunikation und Public Relations(pp. 43-72). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. Colleoni, E. (2013). CSR correspondence procedures for authoritative authenticity in social media.Corporate Communications: a global journal,18(2), 228-248. Cornelissen, J., Cornelissen, J. P. (2017).Corporate correspondence: A manual for hypothesis and practice. Sage. Cummings, T. G., Worley, C. G. (2014).Organization turn of events and change. Cengage learning. Desanctis, G., Monge, P. (2013). Correspondence forms for virtual organizations.Journal of Computer?Mediated Communication,3(4), 0-0.. Eisenberg, E. M., Goodall Jr, H. L., Trethewey, A. (2013).Organizational correspondence: Balancing inventiveness and requirement. Macmillan Higher Education. Gibson, L. A., Sodeman, W. A. (2014). Twenty to thirty year olds and innovation: Addressing the correspondence hole in instruction and practice.Organization Development Journal,32(4), 63-75. Gudykunst, W. B. (2014).Bridging contrasts: Effective intergroup correspondence. Sage. Holtzhausen, D., Zerfass, A. (Eds.). (2014).The Routledge handbook of vital correspondence. Routledge. Jin, Y., Liu, B. F., Austin, L. L. (2014). Inspecting the job of web-based social networking in successful emergency the board: The impacts of emergency birthplace, data structure, and source on publics emergency responses.Communication research,41(1), 74-94. Jussila, J. J., Krkkinen, H., Aramo-Immonen, H. (2014). Web-based social networking use in business-to-business connections of innovation industry firms.Computers in Human Behavior,30, 606-613. Keyton, J., Caputo, J. M., Ford, E. A., Fu, R., Leibowitz, S. A., Liu, T., ... Wu, C. (2013). Examining verbal working environment correspondence behaviors.The Journal of Business Communication (1973),50(2), 152-169. Michalik, A. (2017). Procedure of correspondence in organization.World Scientific News,78, 284-287. Mishra, K., Boynton, L., Mishra, A. (2014). Driving worker commitment: The extended job of inner communications.International Journal of Business Communication,51(2), 183-202. Pedersen, P. (Ed.). (2017).Routledge handbook of game correspondence. Routledge. Razmerita, L., Kirchner, K., Nabeth, T. (2014). Web-based social networking in associations: utilizing individual and aggregate information processes.Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce,24(1), 74-93. Tourish, D. (2014). Administration, pretty much? A processual, correspondence point of view on the job of organization in authority theory.Leadership,10(1), 79-98. Ulmer, R. R., Sellnow, T. L., Seeger, M. W. (2013).Effective emergency correspondence: Movi
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The executives Control Systems - Essay Example The executives control frameworks allude to the manners in which an organization gathers data to oversee and control the exercises with respect to achievement of authoritative objectives and goals in a compelling way. Without legitimate administration, no objective can be accomplished in an auspicious way as different troubles can emerge in this procedure which need an appropriate goals. An administration control framework enables the executives and workers to play out their doled out exercises in a legitimate way utilizing the data put away in it. The board control frameworks allude to the manner in which an organization gathers data to utilize it to achieve hierarchical objectives and destinations in a viable way. An administration control framework helps workers and the board in playing out their relegated exercises in a legitimate way utilizing the data and rules put away in the framework. The executives control frameworks manage each arrangement of an organization, which may inc orporate bookkeeping techniques, representative advantage programs, execution evaluation, and execution improvement frameworks. Be that as it may, organizations need to utilize the board control frameworks as bundles to make the most productive utilization of these frameworks. ... s, exercises, errands, objectives and destinations, and rules with respect to each specific office and business process which chiefs and representatives can use to play out their particular exercises. For instance, when the top administration of an organization needs to recruit new workers for a specific branch of the organization, they allude to the rules put away in the administration control framework which assist them with performing candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ determination and assessment in a characterized way. It additionally assists chiefs with allocating important assignments and obligations to new representatives. Additionally, they help top administration in performing execution and efficiency examinations, just as in creating worker advantage programs. Today, the business world is changing quickly in light of the adjustments in innovation, nature of rivalry, and customer practices. Organizations need to change their administration control frameworks appropriately to profit by the progressing changes as opposed to deserting in the race of rivalry. Organizations need to exhibit their insight with respect to change to respond emphatically to the adjustments in the outside condition to keep up the key execution markers, just as the degrees of efficiency and gainfulness. Chiefs of organizations need to connect operational control and vital arranging by utilizing the rules of the executives control frameworks. As Asel (2009, p. 4) states, Ã¢â¬Å"the focal point of MCS isn't just on one type of control like execution gauges however on different control frameworks cooperating. They can utilize the executives control frameworks to coordinate every single authoritative issue, just as to deal with the issues of representatives. 3. The executives Control Systems as Packages As Sandelin (2008, p. 324) states, Ã¢â¬Å"the usefulness of a control bundle relies upon interior consistency, explicitly on the
Tuesday, August 18, 2020
Sustainable Growth 4 Questions for Fast-Growing Companies When a start-up grows at scale, your leadership strategy will need to grow with it. At MeisterLabs, when we could no longer fit around the same meeting room table, we knew it was time to take stock. Over the past few years, our company has grown from a small start-up to a team of 35. Throughout this process, growing sustainably, rather than rapidly, has been paramount. Weâve needed a leadership strategy that not only hires top talent but provides our team with the onboarding processes and feedback they need to thrive. To receive a helping hand in this, we rolled up our sleeves and signed up for an external leadership workshop. The training was challenging, but enlightening, and identified a few key areas for improvement, along with strategies on how to get there. These approaches will no doubt apply to other growing tech teams too. In this article, weâll share the key lessons, in the hope that youâll be well placed to weather your growth, too: Dealing with Growing Pains As tech companies scale at pace, thereâs a risk that teams will begin to lose direction. Without structure, itâs difficult to continue working together in a strategic way, as bigger picture aims get lost among individual tasks. Without clear team leads, questions over who should onboard new staff members and provide regular feedback can also arise. As a result, in fall 2017, we decided to create a formal company structure. Until this point, MeisterLabs had been almost entirely non-hierarchical. This worked great for fast-paced working and collaboration. However, as we hired lots of new team members over a short period, it became problematic. As new hires joined the team, they would often have no clear line manager. This meant no specific person to onboard them, no one to showcase their work to, and no one to provide regular feedback. To address this, we began by developing a clear company structure, providing each employee with a clear understanding of who they can look to for support and feedback. Next, we needed to ensure that our new leadership team had the skills and confidence to manage their teams. To this end, we reached out to 5P Consulting and brought our team leads and founders together for a 3-day leadership workshop in Vienna. Within the training, we established our own strengths and weaknesses as a leadership team. Then, we looked at how we could improve, particularly in the areas of delegation and providing feedback. Hereâs what we covered and the questions we asked ourselves, in order to make that progress: 4 Essential Questions For Leaders: 1. What drives you as a leader? To know how to improve as a leader, you first need to establish what you could be doing better. To do this, try asking yourself: How would your team describe you as a leader? How does this vary from how you would like to be described? Which leadership situations do you feel youâre really good at? Where would you still like to improve? It might have been a while since you thought about the broader impression of your leadership style. However, aligning where youâre at currently with where youâd like to be is a great first step in identifying how to improve. An element of this is understanding our personal drivers as leaders. These can often be deduced from how we would like to be seen. However, undertaking a questionnaire on our leadership drivers, we found that many of us have drivers that weâre not yet aware of. For example, a number of our leaders found a conclusive drive to please others. Although this can be essential for a happy team, itâs important to remember that you canât please everyone, all of the time. As long as decisions are made for the greater sake of the team, in line with company strategy, not pleasing everyone is okay. Another we found was the need to be perfect, which was holding some leaders back from delegating. Weâll come back to this, but in order to move forward, itâs important to first identify these leadership shortcomings. Productive Team ManagementMade Simple 2. What drives you as a company? Next, focus some thought on drivers within the company as a whole. During our training, we shared on a flipchart what we most appreciate about working at MeisterLabs, as well as where the pain points lie. We asked ourselves: What are the top three things that make us successful right now? What are the top three things that hold us back and if done better, could make us more successful? It became obvious that for many of us, we enjoy elements such as: working with people with a similar mindset an open-door policy for asking for help the active involvement of our knowledgeable founders and the encouragement of team input within our company strategies. All of these factors enable us to trust one another and work well together. However, we established areas for improvement too. As a leadership team, we all agreed that we could be doing a better job of delegating tasks and providing regular, constructive feedback. Both are essential for growing teams, so Iâll share the strategies weâve put in place to address them. 3. Where could you delegate better? As leaders, many of us have been there: Youâre facing a never-ending to-do list, but feel hesitant to ask your team members to take on a task. Even as a company working on our own task management solution MeisterTask weâve faced this problem too. So why is it that we so often face this conundrum? It might be that we feel we could do the task better ourselves. That we think it would require too much time to train a report to do it instead. That it could put too much pressure on a colleague. Or perhaps that weâre simply scared of losing control, in case we become redundant by handing over our work. All of these concerns are valid in their own right. However, companies hire specialist staff for a reason. As long as you feel confident in your team members, we should never feel afraid to entrust them with important tasks. For some of us, resistance to delegation can link back to our inner drivers. For example, if one of your drivers is to complete tasks quickly, this might make you resistant to training a team member to do it. If your driver is to please others, you might be concerned by the pressure youâd be putting on them by delegating. Reflecting on the drivers established in step one will help you in deconstructing any personal resistance to delegating. Once youâre feeling more comfortable to delegate, the key steps we covered in our guide to effective delegation are as follows: Explain why youâre delegating Provide the right instructions Provide the necessary resources and training Delegate responsibility and authority, too Say thank you! Learning to delegate effectively will develop you as a leader and can help motivate your team too. After all, itâs your responsibility to focus on their professional development and this includes challenging them, providing opportunities to grow. As mentioned, at MeisterLabs, we use our own task management tool, MeisterTask, to help delegate. With transparent project boards, we can create and assign tasks to our team, then track these to completion. If team members have any questions, they can voice them simply via the comment section. However, an in-person conversation between the team member and team lead can never go amiss either! 4. Are you providing enough feedback? To help your team members develop further, itâs crucial you provide regular, constructive feedback. This shouldnât be an annual affair, where all tasks completed over the past year are presented all at once. Instead, you should normalize immediate feedback and create a constant dialogue flow, including praise and points for improvement. The mindset of the leader will play a significant role here. In her book, Radical Candor, leadership expert Kim Scott shared that ideally, every team leader will care personally for their team member. In parallel, they should develop a relationship in which theyâre able to challenge each other directly, without resulting in any upset. Many articles have been written about how to give feedback in the best possible way. Some claim that criticism should always be sandwiched in praise. However, as weâve shared previously in our best ways to offer effective feedback, this is just undercover bashing and often ineffective. Instead, the most effective way to offer feedback on topics surrounding criticism, recognition and expectations is via the following steps: First, provide a description of the situation Second, provide an objective description of the behavior Next, provide an objective description of the consequences Then, provide a subjective assessment of the situation, outcomes and onward actions Finally, provide a description of future expectations. In order to communicate your feedback in a considered, thoughtful way, itâs important to first structure your thoughts. Below is an example of how you can prepare for feedback sessions with the help of a mind map. In our case, we used MindMeister. Your browser is not able to display frames. Please visit 5 Steps for Effective Feedback on MindMeister. MeisterTip: To use the template feedback mind map, simply sign into MindMeister (or sign up free) and maximize the map via the map actions icon. Once maximized, click again on the map actions icon and choose to clone the map. From there, edit or embellish the topics to make the map suitable for your personal feedback session. Of course, if your feedback is critical, you might need to escalate this to further levels. The first couple of stages will involve explaining, convincing, requesting changes and then holding follow-ups to monitor those changes. However, persistent issues should be dealt with by alerting the employee to the consequences, before, eventually, putting those consequences into practice. Ultimately, your feedback should be a continuum from friendly chat, to direct conversation, to tangible consequences. Ideally, with a focus on regular feedback, you can avoid the latter escalations altogether. Once youâve been through these processes as a leader, the next step is to disseminate this knowledge internally. By demonstrating the value of the new management processes to your team, you can get them on board with the changes. This way, theyâll be ready and eager for the 1:1 feedback sessions and to receive some new, challenging tasks. In our case, our Tech Lead for MindMeister, Laura BÃ¢rladeanu, led an internal workshop, leading to positive feedback on the new processes so far. After all, feedback is a two-way street, and we, as leaders, must be open to receiving it too ?? If you like the sound of how we do things at MeisterLabs, thereâs still space in our bustling offices in Vienna and Seattle! Head to our jobs page to check out the positions weâre hiring for. Plus, if you donât see an opening that fits, get in touch via [emailprotected] to let us know where you see yourself on our team! Productive Team ManagementMade Simple
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1840 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? I interviewed a successful entrepreneur from UAE. He has established many ventures in Middle East. He is the owner of Spyro International group in Dubai. He is basically into service sector and their services include Spyro Edu, Spyro Technology, Spyro Medicals, Able Joe Oil and gas etc. I personally admire him as he has achieved a lot in his young age. He possesses the qualities and the capability of a successful business entrepreneur. I believe that this interview will help us to understand the path that the entrepreneur chooses to travel. Describe the business and industry. This is basically a service industry. They provide customers with branding services. As a part of this they conduct brand audit, review corporate marketing communication internally as well as externally. This will include advertisements, yearly reports, trade show booth, brochures, sales sheet, training videos, press releases etc to show uniqueness of the clients organization. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "INTERVIEW WITH AN ENTREPRENEUR Mr Sayed Yousuf Ali" essay for you Create order Describe the background of the entrepreneur, education, family, interests. Mr. Sayed Yousuf Ali the owner of Spyro group decided to start his business in the year 1995. He hails from a business family. His forefathers were also into business and have many ventures in UAE. He has completed his BE honors in Mechanical engineering. He worked in private sector for 3 to 4 years in design engineering, training and project planning. His father is also a business personality his mom a housewife. He has a young brother is studying for medicine in United States. His interests are reading, meeting new people, travelling exploring new places etc. Where did the opportunity for this business come from? His forefathers were into business so trying hands on business was very obvious. Small fabrication unit was always a dream but could not start that and had to redirect activities to different directions. His experience and knowledge prompted him to start business and was confident enough that he will flourish. He was confident that he could come up with unique approaches to help clients. He choose this business as it was a service sector which was close to his internal desire. What did the entrepreneur do to prepare to start the business? When we start a business there would always be some unforeseen challenges that would arise. For this I prepared a business plan. Business plan does not help when starting a business it but allows us to analyze the funding options that we have, making crucial business decision, also helps to understand the industry and market. How did the entrepreneur deal with any perceived risk prior to start-up? Functional risk was one of the perceived risks that the entrepreneur had to deal with. The services that we provide are effective and its outcomes are accepted by the customer was one of the perceived risk that he faced. This is a company that promotes the clients business by providing branding services so initially the clients will not have complete trust of the outcomes. What major problems did the entrepreneur encounter during start-up? To start this business the basic problem that he faced was the investment. Investment was necessary to loop in for starting the factory. So he came with an idea to align with partners by selling his ideas and impressing convincing them to invest in the business. Unfortunately many backed out. Then he planned to start a small subsidiary in UAE i.e. Consultant engineering service. This was a big hit with a good team, trustworthy hardworking team. The profit that came through consultant service was used to invest in Middle East. There were not many major problems. Although starting business in Middle East is easy but to get good trustworthy partners, proper documentation visa formalities, papers to be approved by labour were time consuming process. Choosing of company name is also an issue as it has to be approved by the Chamber of commerce. Catchy names are important to business. In service world what works are catchy name quality products services. In the starting phase of a business appointment highly experienced employee will not work out because of the expense. To cut short the expense we chose employees with less experience which affects the jobs that we undertake. So majority of the task assigned to the employees would not be something that they have specialized in it. How were these problems solved? Profit from the Consulting Company was used in the new venture that sorted out the financial problems that arise when starting the business. As this company was introduced in Dubai they got the name that we wanted. Initial stages we just keep on investing in the company and managing the expenses. We cannot fully thing about profit. It takes 2 to 3 years to get surplus amount from the business. At this stage do maximum jobs, synchronize the processes that will help you in long run. Who did the entrepreneur use for help and guidance during preparing to start-up their business? He took guidance from his father grandfather who were already into business and also learned a lot with his own experience mistakes and as well as from the people around him. Who does the entrepreneur consider to be in his/her entrepreneurial network? He considers himself on top of the line and wants at least be once in the Forbes magazine. What are the entrepreneurs growths plans for the business? Explore maximum of what is possible. Hunt for different service sectors industry like advertising, hospital, consulting etc. Widen his horizon and learning maximum out of it and planning for investment money in a proper arena. His major growth plan is to start a fabrication unit for machinery What special steps did they take or are they taking at the moment possibly due to business slump? If the company has proper number of jobs coming in proper flow of money then even in business slumps the business can stand well. But if the situation is going worse we can have to talk to the employees and make them understand that company will not be able to provide them with the same salary packages. Instead of sending them on long leaves or firing them we could reduce the salary in that case still the employee would have some earnings. At this stage the company should also avoid unwanted investments and the money that comes in should be stocked up for future use. What advice would the entrepreneur give to someone thinking about starting a business? For the youth who are interested in starting a business he advised that they should work for some time. This will allow them to learn explore many departments. Understand the different arenas of job, get good contacts then invest into same field where you have gained experience. If they have a very unique and particular idea which they feel would hit the market then should go for it. If you are from a business family and is planning to start a new business then do take advice from your parents who are already into business. Analyze the industry that you are interested in, plan everything and then invest. But if your decision is wrong then it would show a very negative impact on your family business and would be a negative publicity for the other organizations. The most important advice is dont get depressed due to failures. Failures are the initial stages to successes. Analysis: After the interview think about the following: What did you learn from the entrepreneur? Summarize what you learned from this experience. If we have the determination and the courage to stand out even in pressure believe in ourselves and have the confidence to overcome tackle the situation we can succeed in future. What would you have done differently or what would you do differently if you were to start-up your own business? If want to start up my own business I would like to work in the same industry for 4 to 5 years to understand the industry. Working in an organization the pressures it builds up to finish project that we undertake will make us strong and efficient. I would prefer starting business on a small scale with my savings and a few as loan. I would not be planning to start a business somewhere and then invest in Middle East. I would prefer directly investing the money in Middle East. Now what do you think about being an entrepreneur in the UAE as a female. What are some of the challenges you think you would come across? Provide three challenges you think you would come across and describe how you would overcome each one separately. Women in UAE can make tremendous contribution business world. They can bring great amount of creativity to a business organization. UAE women have more potential and can excel as managers, consultant etc. They have enough wealth to invest as well. The educational background of women in UAE has also changed. This all factors will contribute a UAE female to enter into the world of entrepreneurship. Challenges: Challenges as an entrepreneur is a part of business which never ends. But women may face additional challenges because of the gender. Its a male dominated society that we live and this can be a block to their way towards success, Financial institutions are not confident about the entrepreneurial qualities and capabilities of women, Men may find it risky to invest in ventures run by women, Lack of family support and their obligation can be very challenging, Women have low management skill as they have to depend upon intermediates to complete their task, managing family and business together will bring up lot of issues in to family life, lack of equal opportunities in specific industries etc are some of the challenges that can be faced by women entrepreneurs. 3 challenges: Its a male dominated society that we live and this can be a block to their way towards success and Men may find it risky to invest in ventures run by women. I would tackle this situation wisely and woul d make them understand that I am in no way inferior to men. Women have low management skill as they have to depend upon intermediates to complete their task. I would learn and analyze the different factors in business, learn to chose proper quality materials at cheaper price negotiate with the suppliers so that they cannot cheat me. I would prefer to do things by my own and to get proper things done by my staff rather than depending on intermediates managing family and business together will bring up lot of issues in to family life This is one of the most difficult challenges that a women can face. Family members should treat women as a supplementary income provider and should support them. Women too should be able to manage family, kids and business well. I would give proper time for my family and children. This has to be planned properly. Initially this can be difficult but slowly this would work out.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 27 Words: 8000 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Psychology Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? 1.0 Introduction For many years, people have disputed the relationship between emotion and performance. Emotions can be conveyed by a variety of means including verbalizations, expressions, body language and tone of voice (Bernieri, 2001). A person who has the skills of reading these signs should be able to utilize the signals to make an accurate assessment and decision of the situation. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Relationship between emotional intelligence (ei) and occupational performance" essay for you Create order This could then lead to better decision making and increased success in social environments (Rosenthal et al, 1979). As such, we are inclined to reason and link with these emotions the information that they provide (Mayer, Caruso Salovey, 1999). Emotion is almost certainly required as it is general knowledge how important it is in peoples lives. Nevertheless, in the context of education, management and workplaces, emotions or EI are also important. EI is a subtle or soft skill and has become radically popular in the fields of management and psychology. It is widely thought to contribute various aspects of occupational performance (Hubbark, 2005; Mayer, 2008; Boyatzis, Goleman Rhee, 2000; Cooper Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1998 and Weisinger, 1998) and is applicable to different kinds of industries, organizations, groups and jobs (Schaobroek and Grandey, 2000). Khukkar and Kush (2009) expounded that EI is gradually more relevant to both workplace development and developing people. EI principles provide a new instrument to understand and assess peoples behaviour (Goleman, 2001; Mayor Salovey, 1993, 1997 and 2008), organization behaviours (Smith Sharma, 2002), performance (Barsade, Ward, Turner, Sonnenfeld, 2000) change (Carr, 2001), management styles (Goleman, 1998; Mayer, Caruso Salovey, 1998; Gardner and Stough, 2002 and Zaiton, 2006) attitudes (Sparrow and Knight, 2007), interpersonal skills (Rohr, 2005; Goleman, 1995, 1998 and 2001; Mayor Salovey, 2008) and potential. Furthermore it is an important consideration in human resource planning (Mayer, Roberts and Barsade, 2008; Mayer, Salovey and Caruso 2002; Guy and Newman 2004; Kernbach and Schutte 2005) such as job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations, customer service and many more. In the library service industry, emotions play an imperative role in affecting librarians attitude to users and in turn his/her job performance Chen (2003), compet itive advantage (Leidner 1993; Fuller and Smith 1991; Dulewicz and Higgs 2000; Korczynski 2002 and Hartley, 2008), to assist information exchanges between users and stakeholders, which create value for the user (Cherniss and Adler 2000; Cook and MacCaulay 2002; Korczynski 2002; Bardzil and Slaski 2003 and Cavalzani, 2009). For that reason, it is very important to look after the cognitive skills of the relationship with the user and between others. Otherwise the relation with user and stakeholders can be intimidated with a subsequent receding of the satisfaction rate and a negative publicity. Many previous studies provide evidence that identify EI as positively related to job performance and an enhancement of human performance. However, a great deal of what has been said is unfortunately based on supposition rather than scientific research (Bar-on, Handley and Fund, 2005; Fisher, 2000; Riggio and Lee 2007), while Emmerling Goleman (2003); Stys Brown (2004); Douglas, Frink and Fe rris (2004); Zeidner, Matthews and Roberts (2004) suggest, more research is necessary to determine the exact connection and validate claims that EI and individual performance at the workplace includes library services. 1.1 Research Background The public library and information sector in Malaysia serves the information needs of a democratic, progressive, technologically sophisticated and culturally different society. A key focus of the sector is allowing people to connect with the world of information, interact with information and utilize information in all aspects of their lives (IFLA/UNESCO, 1994 and NLM, 2004). The sector nourishes lifelong learning, personal fulfilment, improved decision making, knowledge development, innovation, creativity, cultural continuity and the support of human capital development. As an information provider to the public, Malaysia Public Librarians (MPLs) are also responsible as the local gateway to knowledge, providers of a basic condition for lifelong learning, independent decision-making and cultural development of the individual and social groups. (IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, 1994). For the past 52 years, MPLs have grown rapidly and extended their services to most of the st ates including some remote areas. The public libraries are supported by the National Library of Malaysia (NLM) headquarters situated in the capital, Kuala Lumpur. However, public libraries come under the jurisdiction of their various state governments. In 2003, NLM supported more than 900 public/state libraries in Malaysia, (NLM, 2003). They are responsible for the building and maintenance of the national collection from various library resources, providing facilities for their use as well as providing advice in library matters. The National Library also plays an important role in the planning and development of the library infrastructure throughout the country. This role is in line with the aspirations of the government to encourage a culture of knowledge in the development of the country and to foster a reading culture among Malaysians. However, this is not an easy task for public services and libraries to provide wide ranging services to all communities (IFLA/UNESCO, 2001). Th ese services would include customer focus (public first, performance now) (Raslin, 2009 and Najib, 2009), working towards building a high performance work culture or Key Performance Index (KPI) (Najib, 2005 and Sidek, 2005), public services must equip themselves to satisfy a more demanding clientele (EPU, 2002) along with multitasking. Furthermore, librarians and information professionals work in a rapidly changing environment and the requirement to cope and succeed in this environment has been identified with EI (Leonhardt, 2008). Shamsudin (2005) pointed out that government servants (including public librarians) must possess EI skills in delivering services in order to contribute directly to the creation of a favourable environment and establish a good relationship with stakeholders. Therefore, public libraries have a firm footing in Malaysia and only the government can provide the framework and resources for a uniform service of a high standard. Additionally, its clear that Ma laysian Public Librarians needs to instil and enhance EI skills in providing quality services and improved organization performance. At the same time as Hochschild (1993) and Morris Feldman (1996) indicate that emotion is one feature of a successful organization. 1.2 Problem Statement In summary, an analysis of EI in workplace literature highlights where particular gaps in EI works information exist. Thus, this study is employed to emphasize the following gaps. 1.2.1 Government Advocacy Recently, Malaysian government initiated the 1 Malaysia concepts, which focuses on people first, performance now (Najib, 2009). This becomes a challenge to library staff in making sure that the service offered must fulfil the users needs (Raslin, 2009) even as Malek (2007) lists critical issues in public service facing in the 21st century are; service delivery, values and integrity and relationship management. Thus, in respect of those individuals who scored highest in EI using an appropriate EI assessment, the library can designate, select, develop, recruit andretain quality talented public servants to provide good services to users as required in 1 Malaysia concept. This also affects strategic human capital development (Malek, 2007). Therefore, the forms of knowledge and EI skills that public librarians require are vital in preparing them to be good human resources in the transformation and modernization of public services strength and quality (Mohd Sidek, 2009). The governmen t is responsible in ensuring that public librarians are focusing on quality delivery services and national development. Elements of EI, such as ethics and integrity, are therefore reflected in all activities (Abdullah, 2005). Since independence, the government has introduced various programmes aimed at enhancing EI skills with emphasize on good moral values and integrity in the public service (Aris, 2009). In particular, since the 1980s, greater attention has been given to the concepts of Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy (Bersih, Cekap dan Amanah) (1982), Integration of Islamic Values (Penerapan Nilai-nilai Islam) (1985), Excellent ISO 9000 (1987), Work Culture (Budaya Kerja Cemerlang (1989), Clients Charter (Piagam Pelanggan) (1993), Code of Work Ethics (Kod Etika Kerja) (2004), Ã¢â¬ËIslam Hadhari (2004) (and lastly, One Malaysia (Satu Malaysia) (2009). New roles, changing roles, training, and the fulfilment of user demand in public sectors have been debated on for many decade s. Library service delivery continues to be a major challenge of managing constant change in a constantly changing environment (Curzon, 2006; Fourie, 2007 and Pantry, 2007). Saqib Saddiq (2006) contends that librarians are often gloomy within their workplace and find their job tedious. All library staffs are required to deliver and provide good services to the user (Fourie, 2007). All must be involved with emotions such as, integrity, good ethics, morality, communication and empathy skills, understanding, caring and must have a positive psychology (Quinn, 2007 and Shamsudin, 2005). Some degree of evidence to prove that high demands, meeting user and stakeholders expectations can make librarians become stressed, anger, burnout, tense and display other psychological problems as described by Siamian et al., (2006); Saqid, (2006); Pantry, (2007) and Leonhardt, (n.d). The International Labour Office in Geneva reported that stress problem is increasing in the workplace, negatively affe cting a growing number of people across the world (ILO, 2005). Similarly, Blessinger (2002) notable, every type of library inevitably has problem patrons while research in Europe, USA and Australia indicates that emotions may have an increasing problem effect in library services. Therefore, it is important that psychological development in library staff helps them to manage their emotions (Shamsudin, 2005; Abbott and Cribb, 2004). This study is significant in supporting the government objective to reduce the mental and psychological issue in the workplace including MPLs (Abdul R., 2008). Through a proper psychological development, emotional issues such as anger, stress, anxiety and others can be managed with an appropriate emotional management (Feist Feist, 2006). 1.2.2 Limited Empirical Evidence to Show the Relationship between EI and OP in Library Work. Extensive research has been conducted on the relationship between EI and students performance or job performance. However, there are many scholars in the field of EI that do not have practical evidence to justify their claims that employee success correlates with personal and social skills (Schachter, 2009) and also does not predict performance, specifically because EI is difficult to measure and doubt exists whether it can be assessed at all (Cherniss, 2001; Leonhartd, n.d). Exploring the relationship between EI and librarian performance may provide a source of valuable information for library and information management discipline. There is some research, but it has not been applied to enough samples or in enough situations to be considered a reliable source. Thus, the researchers believe that EI can be applied to the Library and Information Management areas with resulting competitive advantages to the organization in addition to the relationship with the users and stakeholders (Q uinn, 2007). Nowadays it is widely recognized that a persons level of EI is a good indicator of how he/she will perform in a working environment (Schachter, 2009). When EI is applied in the library, Ã¢â¬Å" employees and management be able to accomplish success in their careers and relationships with others and therefore provide a great quality of customer serviceÃ¢â¬ (Singer, 2005). However, researchers suggest that more research is required to validate this relationship, since the lack of results on the relationship between EI in performance in the workplace has been shown ( Leonhartd, n.d ). Nowadays it is widely recognized that a persons level of EI is a good indicator of how he/she will perform in a working environment (Schachter, 2009). When EI is used as an instrument within the library, both employees and management should be able to achieve success in their careers and relationships with others and therefore provide a higher quality of customer service (Singer, 200 5). However, researchers suggest that more research is required to validate this relationship, since the lack of results on the relationship between EI in performance in the workplace has been shown ( Leonhartd, n.d ). At first glance, it may appear that a lack of study to show this relationship. Library staffs are reluctant to explore EI skills compared to technical skills and perhaps their cognitive skills are largely unexplored. From this scenario, the library as a whole may be affected through uncommitted staff, lack of empathy and the receipt of negative feedback from users. 8,066 of complaints received by Public Bureau Complaint (Biro Pengaduan Awam) regard failures to fulfill user needs and others complaints at government agencies (JPM, 2008). Some of the feedback referred to staff, such as not committed, no integrity and a lack of communication skills etc. By knowing the connecting of EI and performance, librarians can utilize EI skills optimally and contribute to the overall library mission. The Library can enhance their performance through positive psychology or EI skills, Quinn (2007), and provide appropriate training (Mills Lodge, 2006). MPLs are not paying much attention to providing an appropriate training and programme related to EI skills. From the NLM calendar training program in 2009, only 3-4 training programmes related to EI offered by NLM were found, such as; communication (related to the social skill area), managing stress (related to self awareness area), team work (related to the self regulation area) (NLM, 2009). 1.2.3 Deficiency of DynamicModel/Framework for measuring EI level among librarians. Many scholars developed the EI framework and model and most of the model or framework is pertinent to all kinds of disciplines (Salovey Mayer, 1990; Goleman, 1995; Bar-On, 2000; Dulewicz Higgs 2000; Mayer, Salovey Caruso 1999 and Palmer Stough 2001). Every single occupation or different jobs have an uniqueexclusive profile of emotional competenciesskill that, cooperativelyalong with cognitive intelligence, communication, education, training, mentoring, and supervising, which are necessary for excellence in performance (Goleman, 1998 and Matthews, Zeidner and Roberts, 2004). Kreitz (2009) claims that limited study and examination of the EI model and traits among library directors and their teams consider this most important. From the perspective of services, library encounters are rather complex affairs and contains unique tasks (Leonhardt, n.d and Willis, 1999). Public library staff will have a range of skills and qualities, including interpersonal skills and intrapersonal s kills as well as social awareness, teamwork, leadership and competence in the practices and procedures of their organization (IFLA/UNESCO Public Library Manifesto, 1994). The use of EI measures in organizational settings has also been somewhat controversial (Davies, Stankov, Roberts, 1998; Mattews, Zeidner, Roberts, 2003) because the presented areas in the EI framework might only be fitting to measure certain types of competency (Hoppers, 2005). Limited EI measurement dimensions in several set skills of the librarian and information professional requires them to develop comprehensive and dynamic instruments to measure librarian EI. Additionally Boyatzis, Goleman and Rhee (1999) suggest elements of the EI model should be clustered in order to rate all competencies to be effective (Hay Group, 2005). At MPLs for instance, the environment of work may be different because the government really emphasizes integrity, spirituality, trustworthiness and Islamic values amongst governme nt servants which are not clear in the existing framework. Besides that, the result may not be reliable or valid since little evidence or research using these frameworks in library works, such as Promis (2008) used Goleman model and Hopper (2005) using Hernon-Rositter Traits Model. Connotation from the absence of an appropriate framework in measuring the EI for a librarian stimulating the library unfamiliar with the EI concept, also not as popular or famous as an aptitude test (Kreitz, 2008). The core competencies and skills procedures of the following library associations and authority bodies were examined. The gap and the main features in order to understand the core competencies/skills or related aspects of EI: American Library Association (ALA, 2008) has highlighted, several skills for librarians to apply. However, the majority of skills with emphasize on technical skills (such as the organization of information and ICT) while only 11 competencies were related to EI set skill s; they are analytical skills, problem solving, decision making, communication, creativity/innovation, expertise and technical knowledge, flexibility/adaptability, interpersonal or group skills, leadership, organizational understanding and global thinking, planning and organizational skills, resource management and service attitude/user satisfaction. Unlike ALA, model competency and skill in the Australian Library and Information Association (ALIA, 2001), entered 15 generic skills and attributes to EI such as: communication skills; professional ethical standards and social responsibility; project management skills; critical, reflective and creative thinking; problem-solving skills; business acumen; ability to build partnerships and alliances; effective team relationship skills; self management skills; a commitment to life-long learning; relevant information, communications technology, technology application skills and appropriate information literacy skills. Nonetheless, again th e skill related to technical and ICT became vital skills in this model. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA/UNESCO, 2001) developed 14 set skills for public librarians relating to the EI model are; interpersonal skills, social awareness, teamwork, leadership and competence in the practices and procedures of the organization. The fundamentalprimary qualities and skills requiredcompetencies requisite of public library staff can be defined included as: Ã¢â¬Å"communication skills, understand the needs of users, co-operate with individuals and groups in the community, knowledge and understanding of cultural diversity, knowledge of material, understanding, teamwork, organizational skills, flexibility, imagination, vision and openness to new ideas, readiness to change methods and knowledge of ICTÃ¢â¬ . In this model, clearly cognitive skills become an important and have been included rather than technical and management skills. Despite the EI skill s existence, still there is a lack of a widespread model in measuring the EI level for librarians. NLM (2004) conducted research and identified 11 areas of set skills required for librarians to possess. There is persuasiveness and user education, technology information system, strategic thinking user orientation, Management and Information service, research skills analytical, performance orientation, impact and business, Management and Leadership (Organizational Drive), communication, information searching and knowledge management and Personal Drive (PNM ID). These set skills have still been lacking when skills related to EI have not been evident. In fact, some skills should put in the same area as cognitive skills. For example, communication should integrate into the personal drive. Despite numerous librarian competency models having been developed by several authors/organizations (e.g., IFLA, 2001; ALIA, 2002; ALA, 2008 and NLM, 2004) but the skills described in their mode ls is not directly related to EI. Each set skill had its own description or were not standardized or well structured. Clearly, it is not comprehensive or dynamic to use in measuring librarian EI. Hay Group (2005), Boyatzis, Goleman, and Rhee (1999) outlined the rationale for the clustering and organization of emotional intelligence competencies in order to make the EI model comprehensive, dynamic and measured. Furthermore, the availability of evidence indicates the differences in librarian set skills, competency of different authority bodies and countries. There is a deficiency of comprehensive, dynamic and established EI models for librarian and information professionals. It would be interesting and meaningful to discover the relationship between EI and OP among librarians using these library EI models and for them to be complimentary rather than contradictory (Ciarrochi, Chan Caputi, 2000). 1.2.4 Limited literatures Discussing EI skills in the field of Library and Information works. The EI skill is being discussed widely in newspapers, (Goleman, 1998) magazines (Druskat Wolff, 2001) books (Cherniss Adler, 2000; Goleman 2002), a range of academic journals (Ciarrochi, Chan, Caputi, 2000; Dulewicz Higgs, 200) and websites (EI consortium, 2009). In the library and information science perspective, Khoo (2004) claims that much literature has been written on the topic of competencies needed by librarians and information professionals in the new millennium. A literature search in the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) database, located more than 1000 papers in the past 10 years discussing LIS competencies including EI. A search in two search engines in July, 2009 shows a stark gap in the number of publications on EI generally and EI related to library services. Google.com presented 2,740,000 hits in general and 120,000 hits EI interrelated in the context of library works (4%) while Yahoo.com contained 9,950,000 strikes in general and 69,400 hits E I related to library works (0.7%). In addition, Orme and Bar-On (2002), noted that the interest in the EI subject is indicated by the almost 500% increase in the number of publications and in the total number of scientific publications alone, of which 3,500 were published between 1970 to the end of the 1990s. The number of papers suggests that it is an important issue related to skills and competencies for the library and information profession and that the profession has arrived at a turning point in its history when the nature of the profession could be revolutionized dramatically (Khoo, 2004). Although a few discussions of EI and library services appear in both library and information science literature (Edidson, 2000; Nazarova, 2002; Rovengers, 2000 and 2002; Singer and Francisco, 2005; Pellack, 2003; and Quinn, 2007), these are non research pieces. One must go outside of library and information management to find other empirical studies. Some librarians are not clear or d o not grasp how EI skills contribute to job performance in the workplace (Leonhartd, n.d). Most literature published is focusing in psychology discipline, education and business sector. Few address the importance of EI in information works. The gap is significant between EI in information works in comparison to others. CILIP (1987) stated that success of service depends on skills. One of the skills required is EI. Similarly Martin (1999) analyzed EI as most applicable in several careers; one of them is the librarian while Leonhardt (2008), stressed the need to address EI skills. However, limited serious publishing and discussion of the EI concept in library works amongst scholars makes this concept quiet and unstable (Landy, 2005). EI is important to all workers because people who possess the ability to control negative approaches and inclinations tend to be reasonable. Stipulation many literatures publish, reveal and can promote EI skills to a librarian and then they can crea te an environment that harvests trust, respect and fairness and can serve as a means of increasing performance and productivity (Harvard Business Review, 2004; Goleman, 1998, 1998b). In many of the writings related to this subject, EI has been touted as an important determinant of many important outcomes in life including career success (Cooper and Sawaf, 1997; Goleman, 1995, 1998). Most of these claims are however, subjective and imitative (Dulewicz and Higgs, 1999). In particular, it is surprising that so little library and information works literature has actually discussed the topic, especially the relationship of EI and work performance. 1.3 Research Questions The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between EI and occupational performance of librarians in Malaysian Public Libraries. The study addresses the following research questions; 1.3.1 What are the dimensions used for measuring EI for librarians? 1.3.2 What is the status/level of EI librarians in MPLs? 1.3.3 How do librarians of MPLs perform in the workplace? 1.3.4 Is there any relationship between EI and OP of librarians in MPLs 126.96.36.199 Is there any significant relationship between self awareness and OP? 188.8.131.52 Is there any relationship between self regulation and OP? 184.108.40.206 Is there any relationship between Social awareness and OP? 220.127.116.11 Is there any relationship between relationship management and OP 1.4 Research Objectives Research objectives explain the purpose of the research in measurable terms and specify what the research should achieve (Zikmund, 1997). The objectives for this research, derived from the research problems and questions, are listed below:- 1.4.1 To identify the dimensions used for measuring EI for librarians 1.4.2 To develop a profile on the level of emotional intelligence and OP of librarians in MPLS 1.4.3 To measure MPLs performance in the workplace 1.4.4 To develop Psychometric intruments to measure emotional intelligence level among Malaysian Librarians 1.4.5 To identify the relationship between EI and OP of librarians in MPLs 18.104.22.168 To determine any significant relationship between self awareness and OP. 22.214.171.124 To determine any significant relationship between self management and OP 126.96.36.199 To determine any significant relationship between social awareness and OP 188.8.131.52 To determine any significant relationship between relationship management and OP 1.5 Context and Scope of Study At the research level, the study is particularly significant in MPLs because it applies, for the first time, a quantitative and qualitative approach (pragmatism) to public libraries. Dror (1973 and 1987); a systems approach to organization development (Senge, 1990); developing education and training as instruments available to government, community and business organizations to prepare individuals for the rapidly-changing, increasingly-demanding world of work, and to improve their employability (Beckett Hager, 2002). Golemans (1995, 1996, 1998 and 2002; Cherniss Golemans (2001) analysis of EI in the workplace are combined in this research, for the first time, to be applied at national level in Malaysian libraries: in the public sector. Thus, this research has significance at the local and national level for public and private organizations seeking ways of developing policy to improve the quality of service to their customers using EI concepts. It is possible that its impact co uld extend to the international level due to the current worldwide interest in the application of Emotional Intelligence in organizations. The scope of this research study is limited to classified variables: EI and its effect on the occupational performance of employees in MPLs. The OP means in the context of this study, will be focusing towards individual performance; for instances job performance, job satisfaction and job commitment. In an effort to eliminate variables that could occur pursuant to using various grades of librarians, the study population is limited to sample librarians in Malaysian public libraries. Participants are full-time employees and classified as first-line supervisors, assistant supervisors, first-line managers, directors and executive-level managers. 1.6 Definition and Key Concepts 1.6.1 Emotional Intelligence The ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate amongst them and to use the information to guide ones thinking and actionÃ¢â¬ (Mayer Salovey, 1990). Ã¢â¬Å"An array of non-cognitive capabilities, competencies and skills that influences ones ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressuresÃ¢â¬ (Reuven Bar-On, 1998; p). Ã¢â¬Å"Learned capability based on EI that results in outstanding performance at workÃ¢â¬ (Goleman, 1998) 1.6.2 Occupational Performance The ability to perceive, desire, recall, plan and carry out roles, routines, tasks and sub-tasks for the purpose of self-maintenance, productivity, leisure and rest in response to demands of the internal and/or external environment (Chapparo, Ranka (1996). In the context of this study, OP refers to job commitment, job satisfaction and individual job performance and to impact on work behaviours and success (Noriah, et al.2000). 1.6.3 Job Performance Job performance is any work-related performance that any librarian can appraise. (HR World, 2009). 1.6.4 Job Satisfaction Ã¢â¬Å"Job satisfaction refers to the feelings and emotional aspects of individuals experiences toward their jobs, as different from intellectual or rational aspects. (Smith et al., 1969) 1.6.5 Job Commitment Degree of commitment to ones profession or occupation (Meyer, 1993) 1.6.6 Public Libraries A public library is an organization established, and supported and funded by the community, either through local, regional or national government or through some other form of community organization. It provides access to knowledge, information and works of the imagination through a range of resources and services and is equally available to all members of the community regardless of race, nationality, age, gender, religion, language, disability, economic and employment status and educational attainment. (IFLA/UNESCO, 2001). In the context of this study, Malaysian Public Library is an organization established, supported and funded by the federal government or state government by providing access to knowledge, information to all members of the community regardless of race, nationality, age, gender, religion, language, disability economic and user status. It will comprise of national library and 14 state libraries. 1.6.7 Malaysian Public Librarian A person who is responsible for a collection of specialized or technical information or materials, printed materials, electronic materials, cartographic materials and AV in Malaysian public libraries. 1.7 Significance of Research / Contribution to the Body of Knowledge In this study it is expected that there are numerous impacts and benefits that result from an emotional intelligence study. This study contributes to the literature of empirical research, library administrations and other related areas of knowledge by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational performance in Malaysian libraries. In fulfilling the studys purpose, significantly, the study allows the researcher to: 1.7.1 Develop Theoretical Model Researcher will develop an empirically based framework of relationship between EI and OP amongst librarians for future research. The theoretical model is developed through empirical literature readings and previous research which enables other researchers to test their research soon. An overview of EI and OP variables outlines the conceptual framework 1.7.2 Provide Empirical Evidence This study may provide additional empirical evidence in support of an ability model of EI, thus supporting it as constructed distinctly from a personality type. Furthermore, establishing a relationship between EI and OP would enable organizations to promote the development of EI as a coping skill against stress; thus maintaining job satisfaction, performance and individual commitment, as well as to promote commitment to ones occupation. Also, providing empirical data to practitioners, researchers and educators for developing professional education and appropriate training programs to improve library administrators. 1.7.3 Practical Contribution Identifying dimensions of EI beyond the contributions of personality and its moderating role in OP will enable MPLs to identify an appropriate selection processes as well as implement training programs for its staff. Librarians who have a high level of job commitment, satisfaction and performance are less likely to leave an organization. Additionally, librarians are more likely to engage in activities that further enhance their knowledge and skills. Researchers can develop knowledge, skill, competencies and abilities of the library staff in the provision of library services to users. Contribute directly to motivate library staff in delivering library services. These findings are useful as a platform to motivate library staff to provide high quality services and accurate information delivery systems as proposed by the Malaysian Prime Minister. 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction EI can be defined in a different way. However, the role of EI in the workplace is important. A positive relationship between EI and an individuals performances, ethics, and values is implied in much of the EI literature. Goleman (2001) has made some dramatic claims for the importance of EI in the workplace, but to date there has been little empirical evidence to support his claims (Ashforth and Humprey (1995). Leonhart (2008) pointed out the need to address EI in library services. In the context of library services, EI is a vital skill in providing and disseminating information to a patron. This cognitive skill should therefore include in the set skill and competency of the librarian. Empathy, communication and focus to customer orientation are partial to the EI concept that librarian must possess. 2.2 Perceptions of Emotional Intelligence Emotion and intelligence have been examined as adversarial components. Typically, emotions were seen as a senseless and turbulent force in the work setting (Mayer Salovey, 1997). Emotionality and rationality were determined to be complimentary components. McDowell and Bell (1997) viewed them as Ã¢â¬Å"inseparable parts of the life of an organizationÃ¢â¬ (p. 6). Those authors examined the operation of the human brain and discovered that Ã¢â¬Å"proper functioning of the brain is dependent upon the smooth interaction of emotionality and rationalityÃ¢â¬ (McDowell Bell). Goleman (1995) viewed each person as having two minds, Ã¢â¬Å"one that thinks and one that feelsÃ¢â¬ (p. 8). Two minds meant two ways Ã¢â¬Å"of knowing to construct our mental lifeÃ¢â¬ (p. 8). The rational mind was the one of which people were most conscious Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"aware, thoughtful, able to ponder and reflectÃ¢â¬ (Goleman, 1995, p. 8). The emotional mind worked alongside the rational mind, but was be viewed as impulsive, powerful, and at times even illogical (Goleman). These two minds, the emotional and the rational, operate in tight harmonyÃ¢â¬ ¦intertwining their very different ways of knowing to guide us through the world. Ordinarily, there is a balance between emotional and rational minds, with emotion feeding into and informing the operations of the rational minds, and the rational mind refining and sometimes vetoing the inputs of the emotions. Still, the emotional and rational minds are semi-independent faculties, eachÃ¢â¬ ¦reflecting the operation of distinct, but interconnected, circuitry in the brain. (Goleman, 1995, p. 9) 2.3 Clusters of Emotional Intelligence The first two clusters have been grouped together under the personal competence heading (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002). The clusters underneath this heading were similar to what Gardner (1983) defined as intrapersonal intelligence and determined how a person managed him/herself (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee). Self-awareness. People who were proficient in the self-awareness cluster were able to identify their feelings and assess how their feelings affected them (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002 and Hay Group, 2005). Eminent self-awareness skills legitimate a person to monitor self and behaviour to ensure decisions worked to benefit him/her in the future. We see an environment through filters based on our values, beliefs, experiences, knowledge, culture, and many other factors. To understand how and why we see and interpret experiences and situations the way we do, we must embark on a lifelong journey of learning and growth. In addition, people with self-awareness competencies knew their strengths and limitations, and exhibited confidence when their strengths were needed (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee). Self-management. Competencies under this cluster included the ability to admit mistakes, juggle multiple demands, set high standards for self and others, take initiative, and be optimistic (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Managing your emotions means understanding them and then using that understanding to deal with situations productively (Weisinger, 1998, p. xx). Maulding (2002) defined self-management as Ã¢â¬Å"handling feelings so they are appropriate. An ability that builds on self-awarenessÃ¢â¬ (p. 9). Social competence was the second heading and included the capabilities that determined how relationships were managed (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002). These clusters were similar to what Gardner (1983) described as interpersonal intelligence. Social awareness. Empathy, organizational awareness, and service orientation were competencies liste d under this cluster. People who were skilled in this area read the emotions of others, detected power relationships, got along well with others, and created an emotional climate suitable for all involved parties (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002). Relationship management. A person adept at creating good relationships was one who inspired others to be appropriate role models and who persuaded others to be supportive of change. In addition, skilled individuals managed conflict, encouraged collaboration among team members, and developed the skills of others (Goleman, Boyatzis, McKee, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"Relating well to others means connecting with them to exchange information meaningfully and appropriatelyÃ¢â¬ (Weisinger, 1998, p. xxi). 2.1 Importance of EI in the Workplace There are enormous roles for EI in the organization. Research in this area embraces the idea that people addressing those with personnel qualities, are the most important aspects of the organizations activity. Individual qualities can be formed by utilizing EI skills (OHara, 2005). Bardzill Slaski (2002) supported this idea when he noted the roles of EI in hiring staff. Several studies reported the implication of the economic value of hiring staff with an EI assessment. The Government Accounting Office (1998) saved the total amount after the United States Air Force used Bar-Ons Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) to recruit new staff. By recruiting those individuals who scored highest in EI assessment, they increased their ability to recruit successful staff by triple and saved $3 (RM 10.5) million annually. A same finding as study by Boyatzis (1999) found that when their business partners in a multinational consulting firm were assessed using EI competencies, their partners wh o scored higher delivered $1.2 (RM 4.2) million more profit than did other partners. Promsri (2005) conducted research from 400 respondents at a special commercial bank HQ in Thailand found empathy of service provider EI factors were a significantly explanatory variable to customer retention. Quite similar findings were shown by Lopes et al., (2006) while the conducted study involving Fortune 400 insurance companies. The study found a positive relationship between EI assessed with a performance measure and positive workplace outcomes. Cherniss (2000) listed four reasons why the workplace would be needed for evaluating and improving EI competencies: EI competencies are critical for success in most jobs. Many adults enter the workforce without the competencies necessary to succeed or excel at their job. Employers already have the established means and motivation for providing emotional intelligence training. Most adults spend the majority of their waking hours at work. EI is feasible in any type of activities including library services. The development of EI in Malaysia is in line with a national agenda. Noriah, et al., (2000) found that EI is positively linked with problem solving and academic achievement (Wan Ashibah, 2004; Syed Najmudin, 2005; Shammila, 2006; Saemah, 2006; Raslinda, 2007 and Zurina 2005). Throughout the general framework, a large arrangement of competencies had been claimed to be significant for success in occupational settings (e.g., see Boyatzis et al. 2000; Cooper and Sawaf 1997; Weisinger 1998). 2.2 EI in Library and Information Services There are enormous roles for EI in the organization. Goleman (1998) lists 25 different competencies necessary for effective management in the workplace with different competencies believed to be required in different professions. One of them is librarian. It is clear from the list that librarian requires the EI to deal with users and facilitate services (customer service orientation) (Singh, 2006 cited in Yate, 1977) see figure 1. Biochemist Librarian Chef Technologist Billing Clerk Consultant Forecaster Broker System Analyst Radiological Technician Electrical Engineer Dental Hygienist Mechanical Engineer Compensation Analysis Auditor Rental Sales Associate Underwriter Fireman Account Environmental Lawyer Geophysicist Writer MIS Manager Dentist Software Engineer Police Officer Civil Engineer Nurse Aide Figure 1: EI Required for Various Job. Source; Singh (2006). Much research and presentations disclose knowledge and skills of human beings in the library and information process (Jela, 2001). This process involves cognitive, affective, behavioral and social elements. The success of library services needs to instill and enhance EI skills in providing quality services at the same time as Christopher, (2003) claims EI for library staffs is essential for harmony, maximum productivity and quality services. Besides that, performance assessment is a further area for which EI will be valuable in hiring, training, and promoting lucratively library staff. Harmon (2000) identified five factors to be the most predictive for recruitment success in the library. These were assertiveness, empathy, happiness, emotional self-awareness and problem-solving skills. A library manager with intense EI skills will use more than IQ to make a hiring, selecting and promoting decision (Singer, 2005). A manager will therefore, be able to make a better decision and recruit quality staff because they will take into consideration how the applicants take into account how the applicants personalityqualities will be appropriate into and benefit to the library service is also described by Singer (2005). Slaski and Bardzil (2003) and Hartley (2008) conclude that EI is fundamental competencies for enhancing the service provision. Empathy is one of the most important variables from the EI model for librarians. Wilson and Birdi (2008) as well as Quinn (2007) claim empathy is applicable in the field of librarianship while Nikolova (2004) states that Ã¢â¬Å"empathy is one of the psychological skills that a librarian must work to improveÃ¢â¬ and that it could serve to improve the quality of service provided. Users need all types of assistance and services from librarians (Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008). The role of empathy is essential in the development of customer service skills (Golem an, 2001; Bar-On, 2002; Matthewes, Zeidner and Roberts; 2004; Flanagan et al., 2005 and Birdy, Wilson and Cocker, 2008. The role of empathy must be considered in the development of customer service skills (Goleman, 2001; Bar-On, 2002; Matthewes, Zeidner and Roberts; 2004; Flanagan et al. , 2005 and Birdy, Wilson and Cocker, 2008. Likewise, many study findings show evidence the link between emotions and motivation in a broad range of research (Frijda 1994; Zurbriggen Sturman 2002 and Anne et al., 2007 and Tella, Ayeni and Popoola, 2007). EI in the workplace can play a major role in making staff more committed, motivated, productive, profitable, and in a more enjoyable place (Christopher, 2003 and Zeidner, Matthews, and Roberts, 2004 and Anne et al., 2007). Librarians who regularly receive positive feedback (such as praise, reward etc.) from management and users for their contributions are motivated to think about how they can perform even more in their library performance (Tel la, Ayeni and Popoola, 2007). The ability of librarians emotions and the feelings of others is the pivotal to relationships or interaction that are engaging, exciting, fulfilling, creative, and productive (Mill and Lodge, 2006 and Birdi, Wilson and Cocker, 2008). Moreover, it is compulsory for connections or communication to be established between library staff and patrons (Sanderback, 2009). The achievement of these relationships will depend on the eminence of the relating approaches used by library staff. One likely indicator of staffs ability to relate to their users is their level of EI and be able to build, cultivate, sustain and occasionally patch relationships with library patrons (Mill and Lodge, 2006). According to Downing (2009) the changing and evolution information landscape, require library staff to commit and understand user demands, to retain their users in the competitive environment. Library services, therefore, must be able to recognize and combine potential interpersonal, intrapersonal (EI skills) and technical skills in order to make better or right decisions (Harmon, 2000; Goleman, 2005). Librarian can think and act more rationally in the moment by developing emotional self-regulation skills that enable he/she to quickly metamorphose negative, weakening emotions into more positive, productive ones (Stock, 2009). Library also will get advantageous by applying EI in terms of:- Personality traits (conscientiousness, optimism) Motivation (attributions, need for achievement, internal motivation) Self attitude (self-esteem, self confidence) Character (trust, integrity) Cognitive states (intentional flow) Aptitudes (intuition) Social skills (communication, assertiveness, provision of feedback) Social behaviours (pro-social behaviours) 3.0 Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction Generally, mixed methods research is knowledge derived from the pragmatist. According to Cherryholmes, 1992; Murphy, 1990 and Creswell, pragmatism Ã¢â¬Å"provides a discussion of paradigms then it can be proposed that taking a particular approach to researchÃ¢â¬ . InYet spite of that, , the pragmatic paradigm indicatesm implies athat the comprehensive overall approach to research is that of mixing data collection methods and data analysis procedures within the research process (Creswell, 2003). This chapter presents an overview of the methodological perspective of the research. Section 3.2 describes the research strategy. Section 3.3 presents the research design of mixed methods and is based on the research questions in this study. Section 3.4 discusses the exploratory mixed design procedures. Finally, Section 3.5 discusses data collection methods (Appendix A) 3.2 Research Strategy Reseachers choose to apply a sequentially mixed methods design adapted from Cresswell (2002) and Bulling (2005) in this study. Mixed method approaches to be used and will involve librarians at public libraries in Malaysia. The purpose of this sequentially mixed method study, is to first explore and generate themes about EI dimensions amongst librarians in public libraries using face-to-face interviews (quantitative). Then, based on these themes, the second phase is to develop a new instrument (psychometric) and to survey librarians about the level/status of EI, measure librarian performance and identify a relationship between EI and OP (Quantitative). The rationale for using mixed methods data is that a useful survey to identify the relationship between EI and librarian performance could best have been identified only after a preliminary exploration of dimensions and developed EI instruments for librarians. 3.3 Research Design In the 1st phase (qualitative), the researcher tends to answer RQ 1 (What are the dimensions for measuring EI amongst librarians?Ã¢â¬ ) And help to develop the second method (quantitative) in the 2nd phase (Greene et al., 1989). This design is based on the premise that an exploration is needed for one of several reasons: EI instruments are not available for librarians, the variables or EI dimensions for measuring librarians are unknown, or there is no guiding framework or theory. Because this design begins qualitatively, it is best suited for exploring a phenomenon (Creswell, Plano Clark, et al., 2003). In the 2nd phase to answers RQ 2-4 (What is the status/level of EI librarians in MPLs?), How do librarians of MPLs perform in the workplace? Is there any relationship between EI and OP of librarians in MPLs? This design will particularly be used to develop and identify a relationship of EI and performance because one is not already available (Creswell, 1999; Creswell et al., 20 04) or identify important EI variables to study quantitatively when the variables are unknown. It is also appropriate in generalizing results to different groups (Morse, 1991), to test aspects of an emergent theory or classification (Morgan, 1998), or to explore a phenomenon in depth and then measure its prevalence. 3.4 Exploratory Mixed Design Procedures. The Exploratory Mixed Design is a two-phase approach and is referred to as the Exploratory Sequential Design (Creswell, Plano Clark, et al., 2003) (Appendix B). This design starts with qualitative data, to explore a phenomenon, and then builds to a second quantitative phase. Im using this design build on the results of the qualitative phase by developing an instrument, identifying variables, or stating propositions for testing based on an emergent theory, framework or thematic. These developments connect the initial qualitative phase to the subsequent quantitative component of the study. Because the design begins qualitatively, a greater emphasis is often placed on the qualitative data. 3.5 Data Collection Methods 3.5.1 1st Phase Qualitative Using the purposive sampling technique, semi structured-Interview with 12 senior public librarians will be conducted and will be involving selected public libraries in Malaysia. The questions are developed based on Goleman, 2001; ALA, 2008; ALIA, 2001; IFLA/UNESCO, 2001 and NLM, 2004) and comprises of 4 main areas. There are; self-awareness, self management, social awareness and relationship management. Public librarians job specification analysis will also be highlighted. The Critical Incident Technique (or CIT) procedures will be used for collecting direct interpretation of librarians behaviour that has critical significance and meets methodically defined criteria. CIT is used during the interview with chief librarians, where the informants are encouraged to talk about unusual library staff incidents related to emotions instead of answering direct questions. By use of CIT emphasis is placed on the inclusion of chief librarians general opinions about management and working proc edures, instead the focusing on specific incidents is explored. This technique is then kept track of as incidents, which are then used to solve practical problems and develop broad psychological principles and EI instruments. This technique can be described as one that makes a significant contribution either positively or negatively to library activity or phenomenon. Chief librarians are asked to tell a story about their emotional experiences that they have had. Interviews will be transcribed for content analysis using NVIVO. The basic unit of analysis will be a quote taken from the transcriptions. A quote being a Ã¢â¬Å"statement made by the subject who was self-definable and self-delimiting in the expression of a single, recognizable aspect of the subjects experienceÃ¢â¬ (Cloonan, 1971, p.117, cited in Scanlan, Stein Ravizza, 1989). Both inductive and deductive processes of reasoning will be used to let uniform themes emerge and be grouped together according to a taxonomy approach. An independent researcher will check that the levels of abstraction obtained, accurately represented the raw data units. By employing this triangulation method, the verifying of data will increase its validity (Patton, 1990). The result from an interview is used to develop emotional competence inventory for a librarian (ECI-L). Review from an expert will be used to identify EI taxonomy before developing ECI-L. The method of ECI-L development is as follows: (1) look for EI items with the best chosen by the senior librarians to their intended scale; (2) in the analysis, EI items selected will check credibility, neutrality or conformability, consistency or dependability and applicability or transferability to ensure an item selected is of quality (Lincoln Guba, 1985) (3) drop unnecessary items or non consistent or of less priority. This means that if chief librarians gave no response, suggests it might be difficult to observe the behaviour in others, or the item wording is confusing; (5) look for items conceptually at the centre of the definition of the EI competency; (6) look for items with distributed levels; and (7) identify items that had confusing or multiple phrases. (8) Validate EI taxonomy with expert in library and information management field and psychologist. 3.5.2 2nd Phase Ã¢â¬â Quantitative The ECI-L Questionnaire is developed after determining the EI dimensions from interview data. Beta version of the survey instrument is ready for testing to the general population (library staffs) after completing the pilot study to verify the questionnaire. Survey respondents are responding on a 5 point Likert type scale ranging from Ã¢â¬Å"Strongly DisagreeÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"Strongly AgreeÃ¢â¬ . Example of questions is, Ã¢â¬Å"I excel in my best work because of my good emotionsÃ¢â¬ . Further, to identify occupational performance. Therefore, a 7-point scale (from unsatisfactory to excellent) on such characteristics as ability, co-operation, job knowledge, and quality of work using Job Performance Rating Scalewill be present. To measure job satisfaction, Employee Satisfaction Inventory is used (Koustelios, 1991; Koustelios and Bagiatis, 1997). It measures satisfaction in six aspects of a job: work itself, pay, promotion, supervision, working conditions and organization as a w hole while job commitment will be measured using The Individual Comprehensive Commitment Questionnaire. Respondents will be selected randomly from both professional and support staff and grades of public libraries in Malaysia. In total, a sample of 350 will be selected from a targeted population of 1800 based of sampling frame (Appendix C). SPSS will be used to analyse quantitative data. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) will be performed on the data collected through the questionnaires to check whether a good factor structure exists with respect to the theory that is in question. That is, to check whether the variables in the scales of each questionnaire form coherent subsets but is relatively independent of each other (Tabachnick Fidell, 2001). Once it has been confirmed that the obtained factor solution fits the expected factor solution, and then further analyses will be conducted via structural equation modelling (SEM). The time lapse between two data collection points will last between 6 months to 1 year.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
EDUCATION in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. We will write a custom essay sample on Defects of Education in India or any similar topic only for you Order Now In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation and story-telling etc . Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC The gurukula system was the ancient system of education. A gurukula is a type of school in India, residential in nature, with shishyas living in proximity to the guru, often within the same house. In a gurukul, shishyas reside together as equals, irrespective of their social standing, learn from the guru and help the guru in his day-to-day life. They did not accept fees ONLY ASMALL GURUDAKSHINA WHICH MAY NOT BE MONETARY. INDIA S ANCIENT GURUKUL SYSTEM IS WORTH EMULATING BY ALL INTERESTED IN IMPARTING EDUCATION. THE GURUKUL SYSTEMBRINGS A SENSE OF RESPECT AND COMMITMENT FROM THE TEACHERS AND THE STUDENTS Nalanda and Takshishila universities were the oldest university-system of education in the world. Indian education suffered a huge blow as Western education became ingrained into Indian society with the establishment of the British empire. the British so cleverly played their cards that even after fifty years of independence we still continue to exist in a state of stupor, unable unwilling to extricate ourselves from one of the greatest hypnoses woven over a whole nation. Indian curriculum is criticized for being based on rote learning. Our present day education system gives no chance to creativity. It is marks , grades and competition all the way . It should inculcate good values in the minds of students. Emphasis should also be given on physical and vocational training. Teaching of ethics should be incorporated in the curriculum right from kindergarden through high school. Children should be allowed to choose their own subjects acc. to their interests. They must be made to interact with each other in groups and express their views on various topics. Instead of taking notes from voluminous books , teachers etc they must be made to get information by themselves and share it with the class. This will help them to develop good analytical skills and reading habits . Children must have practical experience . They can be taken on trips to museums, labs, etc where they can learn by interacting with experienced people. Education is to gain and share knowledge. Sharing without communication is impossible. English should not be banned at the primary level as it remains the global language. Learning hindi, the national language and the state language helps in internal communication. The system of Education in India should focus on learning and not exams. Unfortunately Education has become a lucrative business destroying the real purpose of itself. The bad quality of education in govt schools have given a thrust to the the rise of commercial coaching classes all over India. Students today hardly think of being a teacher due to less perkÃ¢â¬ ¦ many who are hardly passionate about engineering and medicine are studying just for the sake of getting a fat salary and package along with it. Middle class parents pay what is demanded by the coaching classes, this has alarmingly turned out to b an industry in our nation. Statistically 25% of the Indian population is illiterate, only 7% of the population that goes to school manage to graduate and 15% manage to make it to high school. 80% of schools are managed by the Govt. , private schools are expensive and out of reach for the poor Another reason for poor quality of education is the poor quality of teachers in government schools . Government schools are unable to attract good quality teachers due to inadequate teaching facilities and low salaries. To improve the quality of education , the government needs to spend more money from its coffers on education. The really critical aspect of Indian public education system is its low quality. The actual quantity of schooling that children experience and the quality of teaching they receive are extremely insufficient in government schools. A common feature in all government schools is the poor quality of education, with weak infrastructure and inadequate pedagogic attention. Conclusion School teachers SHOULD BE PAID high SALARIES and, every care is to be taken that these teachers keep on upgrading. The government should realize that these are the people who shape their future generations. All over India the syllabus must be same, because partiality occurs between students. . Frankly it would be foolhardy to believe that a syllabus consisting a bit of maths bit of science, arts and literature is a foolproof way to educate whole of India. Our present day system of education can be revamped and changes incorporated by getting a group of experienced teachers from various parts of our country. The task is best done by them and not by a bunch of politicians who do not have any training in education. Hope to see the Indian system of education reach its zenith like it did in ancient times! How to cite Defects of Education in India, Papers